[154] They insisted that some information derived from the CIA program was useful, specifically that interrogation techniques made some detainees compliant and that the "information provided by the totality of detainees in CIA custody" had led to Osama Bin Laden. "[7] Yet in the 20th Century authoritarian states such as Mussolini's Fascist Italy, Hitler's Third Reich, and Lenin's and Stalin's Soviet Union once again resumed the practice, and on a massive scale. [256] In February 2016, several leading U.S. presidential candidates openly argued for reintroducing torture. That, after all, is the teaching of United States v. Altstötter, the Nuremberg case brought against German Justice Department lawyers whose memoranda crafted the basis for implementation of the infamous "Night and Fog Decree. The […] [255], Without any prosecutions the possibility remains that a future presidential administration could claim torture is legal and revive its practice. [193][194], The judges said they found it "difficult to conceive" the rationale for the US's objections to releasing the information, which contained "no disclosure of sensitive intelligence matters". [145], On December 9, 2014, United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (SSCI) released a 525-page document containing the key findings and an executive summary, of their report into the CIA's Detention and Interrogation Program. "[165] The New York Times reported that according to "some insiders," an inquiry into the C.I.A. Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000, Anti-terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001, Central Intelligence Agency#Declassified CIA interrogation manuals, George W. Bush's second term as President of the United States#Interrogation, http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1068316X.2010.486380, http://www.springerlink.com/content/t34qg4072g224g15/, http://husky1.stmarys.ca/~mpatry/Smithetal2009.pdf, "Police Deception: The Law and the Skin Trade in the Windy City", The Arrogant Chameleons: Exposing Fraud Detection Homicide, The Last Frontier: Myths & The Female Psychopathic Killer, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/blog/2005/11/07/BL2005110700793.html, "Transcript of interview with CIA director Panetta", http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/42887700/ns/world_news-death_of_bin_laden/t/transcript-interview-cia-director-panetta/, Report Gives New Detail on Approval of Brutal Techniques, "Facing up to what we did in interrogations", http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/george-will-zero-dark-thirty-and-our-interrogation-legacy/2013/01/11/4d0e5f66-5b5e-11e2-9fa9-5fbdc9530eb9_story.html, MSNBC Report of Obama speech describing techniques used at Guantanamo as torture, Holder Tells Senators Waterboarding is Torture, text of the new Illinois law (SB15) requiring electronic recording of custodial interrogations in murder case (The Illinois Criminal Justice Information Act), 223A: Recording of Interviews of Suspects in Serious Crimes. [111] A year before this investigation was concluded, it was revealed that interrogations by special units of the U.S. military services were much harsher and more physical than any of the above DIA practices, to the point that 2 DIA officials reportedly complained, after which they were threatened by non-DIA interrogators. The CIA rarely reprimanded or held personnel accountable for serious or significant violations, inappropriate activities, and systematic and individual management failures. Law and Human Behavior, 34, 39-40.http://www.springerlink.com/content/t34qg4072g224g15/. [84][85], Stephen Soldz, Steven Reisner and Brad Olson wrote an article describing how the techniques used mimic what was taught in the SERE-program: "the military's Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape program that trains US Special Operations Forces, aviators and others at high risk of capture on the battlefield to evade capture and to resist 'breaking' under torture, particularly through giving false confessions or collaborating with their captors". Republican Senator John McCain, citing Obama Administration CIA Director Leon Panetta (who did not join with the others in the Wall Street Journal Op-ed) had previously said that brutality produced no useful information in the hunt for Osama Bin Laden; leads were "obtained through standard, noncoercive means. While Jane Mayer reported for The New Yorker: According to the SERE affiliate and two other sources familiar with the program, after September 11 several psychologists versed in SERE techniques began advising interrogators at Guantánamo Bay and elsewhere. [12] Some of these techniques fall under the category known as "white torture". Statement for the record: Office of General Counsel involvement in interrogation issues", "A Tortured History: The President says "We do not torture." The Reid Technique is one of the primary interrogation techniques used by the police. In addition, many other elements of the ill-treatment, either singly or in combination, constituted cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. "No position taken has done more damage to the American reputation in the world – ever. If you want to call torture by any other name, one that best suits the description is the enhanced interrogation techniques as described the U.S. government. It is also important to note that some detainees who were subjected to enhanced interrogation techniques attempted to provide false or misleading information about the facilitator/courier. [100], Common Article 3 remains the policy under the Obama administration, and not the balance of the Third Geneva Convention.[101]. According to a report published by The Atlantic, the jail was manned by DIA's DCHC staff, who were accused of beating and sexually humiliating high-value targets held at the site. There are multiple techniques employed in interrogation including deception, torture, increasing suggestibility, and the use of mind-altering drugs. Good cop/bad cop is an interrogation technique in which the officers take different sides. This method of extracting essential data from these people are … Interrogation (also called questioning) generally means formally or informally interviewing a person to gain needed information of some kind. [199][200][201] In addition, a new US definition of torture was issued. Interrogation Techniques Interrogation (also called questioning or interpellation) is interviewing as commonly employed by officers of the police, military, and Intelligence agencies with the goal of extracting a confession or obtaining information. [252], The U.S. under the Bush administration "unsigned" the treaty that had conferred on the International Criminal Court jurisdiction over Americans. "[179] What followed was an "erosion of standards dictating that detainees be treated humanely. While the ‘bad cop’ is seemingly against the subject, the 'good cop' seems to take the side of the subject, sympathizing with and even defending the subject. Techniques > Interrogation. Instances of criminal behavior by military, civilian, and contract personnel of the U.S. Department of Defense has happened and has happened with regard to Geneva Category prisoners and detainees. We look at what has surfaced so far", "U.S. ", "Justice Nomination Seen as Snub to Democrats", "Durbin, Feingold, Kennedy Demand Bush Withdraw Nominee For DOJ Office Of Legal Counsel", "Scientists Claim CIA Misused Work on Sleep Deprivation", "Election to Decide Future Interrogation Methods in Terrorism Cases", "MEMORANDUM FOR JOHN A. RIZZO ACTING GENERAL COUNSEL, CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Re: Application of the War Crimes Act, the Detainee Treatment Act, and Common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions to Certain Techniques that May Be Used by the CIA in the Interrogation of High Value al Qaeda Detainees", "Memos Suggest Legal Cherry-Picking in Justifying Torture: DOJ Lawyers' Analysis Changed Little Despite New Legal Backdrop", "Former US chief prosecutor condemns 'law-free zone' of Guantánamo", "U.N.: U.S. Should Close Gitmo Panel On Torture Also Says U.S. Should Avoid Using Secret Prisons", "Court Censures Poland Over C.I.A. [92], many of the interrogation methods used in SERE training seem to have been applied at Guantánamo."[86][93][94][95]. ". The U.S. military’s top lawyers were warning that “enhanced interrogation techniques” were legally questionable, likely ineffectual and could expose American troops to criminal prosecution. This approval encompassed six listed techniques, including temporary food deprivation of no less than 1,000 calories (4,200 J) per day, sleep deprivation by being forced to hold a "standing position for as many as four days", and several types of physical striking. [268], Euphemism for program of systematic torture by U.S. government, Controversies surrounding people captured during the, People who have been called "high-value detainees" in the, History of approval by the Bush administration, International Committee of the Red Cross report, Comparison to the Gestapo interrogation method called 'Verschärfte Vernehmung', United Nations Convention Against Torture, Court confirms enhanced interrogation in Poland is torture, US Justice Department says no prosecutions, Senate Intelligence Committee report on CIA torture, Common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions, Effectiveness of torture for interrogation, United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, believed to originate in Chinese communist torture techniques to extract false confessions from American POWs, United Nations' Special Rapporteur on Torture, "The Executive Editor on the Word 'Torture, "How America Came to Torture Its Prisoners", "Former senior Bush official on torture: 'I think what they did was wrong, "Shields and Brooks on the CIA interrogation report, spending bill sticking point", "Soviet-Style 'Torture' Becomes 'Interrogation, "What the C.I.A. [67][69][70] Jane Mayer, author of The Dark Side,[71] quotes Zelikow as predicting that "America's descent into torture will in time be viewed like the Japanese internments", in that "(f)ear and anxiety were exploited by zealots and fools. International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies ISSN 2028‐9324 Vol. CIA detainees were subjected to coercive interrogation techniques that had not been approved by the Department of Justice or had not been authorized by CIA Headquarters. The steadfast, ongoing refusal of our leading media institutions to refer to what the Bush administration did as "torture" – even in the face of more than 100 detainee deaths; the use of that term by a leading Bush official to describe what was done at Guantanamo; and the fact that media outlets frequently use the word "torture" to describe exactly the same methods when used by other countries – reveals much about how the modern journalist thinks. According to Jane Mayer, during the transition period for then President-elect Barack Obama, his legal, intelligence, and national-security advisers had met at the CIA's headquarters in Langley to discuss "whether a ban on brutal interrogation practices would hurt their ability to gather intelligence", and among the consulted experts: There was unanimity among Obama's expert advisers... that to change the practices would not in any material way affect the collection of intelligence. [17] Whether these interrogations under torture produced useful information is hotly debated. Brynes coined the phrase “the third degree” to describe his interrogation technique for eliciting confessions from criminal suspects. [193], The High Court judges also stated in 2009, that a criminal investigation, by the UK's Attorney General, into possible torture had begun. [18] The CIA admits to waterboarding three people implicated in the September 11 attacks: Abu Zubaydah, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, and Mohammed al-Qahtani. [135][226], In July 2014, the European Court of Human Rights condemned the government of Poland for participating in CIA extraordinary rendition to a black site in Poland for enhanced interrogation, which the court called "torture, inhumane and degrading treatment. The CIA's Claims and What the Committee Found", "Senate report disputes CIA account of Osama bin Laden search", "Ex-CIA Directors: Interrogations Saved Lives", Minority views of Vice Chairman Chambliss joined by Senators Burr, Risch, Coats, Rubio, and Coburn, "Bin Laden's death and the debate over torture", "Exclusive: Private letter from CIA chief undercuts claim torture was key to killing Bin Laden", "Coexistence of aggressive interrogation and civil liberties", "CIA chief: 'Unknowable' whether ordinary interrogation would bring same intel gains", "Earnest to Karl: Even if Enhanced Interrogations Did Help Find bin Laden, It Wasn't Worth Damage It Did To US", "Feinstein report: CIA misled Bush, public about torture", "Behind Clash Between C.I.A. The CIA concluded that the enhanced interrogation techniques had been effective in providing intelligence and has been a key reason why al-Qa'ida has failed to launch a spectacular attack in the West since September 11, 2001.[164]. [241], The United Nations' Special Rapporteur on Torture, Human Rights Watch, and American legal scholars have called for the prosecution of Bush administration officials who ordered torture, conspired to provide legal cover for torture, and CIA and DoD personnel and contract workers who carried it out. [77] The CIA came to learn that Mitchell and Jessen's expertise in waterboarding was probably "misrepresented" and thus, there was no reason to believe it was medically safe or effective. [41] In December 2014, the U.S. Senate published around 10% of the Senate Intelligence Committee report on CIA torture, a report about the CIA's use of torture during the George W. Bush administration. Custody, United States Senate Committee on Armed Services, Investigation of Allegations of the Use of Mind-Altering Drugs to Facilitate Interrogations of Detainees, Deputy Inspector General for Intelligence, "E-Mails Show FBI Agents Fretted About Prisoner Abuse", "Report Discredits F.B.I. 499–516. These interrogations involved the use of torture techniques similar to those he would later use at Guantánamo Bay: prolonged shackling, threats against the detained person’s family members, and coerced confessions. [195], In February 2010, the UK Court of Appeal ruled that material held by the UK Foreign Secretary must be made public. The report tells that the ICRC finds the detainees stories "largely credible, having put much stock in the fact that the story each detainee told about his transfer, treatment and conditions of confinement was basically consistent, even though they had been incommunicado with each other throughout their detention by us [the CIA]." [8] The CIA adopted some Gestapo and KGB methods such as waterboarding, sleep deprivation, and the use of electric shock, and researched new ideas: so-called 'no-touch' torture involving sensory deprivation, self-inflicted pain, and psychological stress. Sometimes the interrogated person is suspected of committing a crime or thought to have a reason to hide the information. [24], Debates arose over whether "enhanced interrogation" violated U.S. anti-torture statutes or international laws such as the UN Convention against Torture. The CIA has actively avoided or impeded congressional oversight of the program. That would directly threaten the UK's national security, Miliband had told the court. [17], The number of detainees subjected to these methods has never been authoritatively established, nor how many died as a result of the interrogation regime, though this number could be as high as 100. Psychology, Crime & Law. Interrogators seek to increase a subject's suggestibility. The punishment for them was death. [34][68] The Bush Administration attempted to collect all the copies of Zelikow's memo and destroy them. The interrogation starts with the officer telling the suspect that the evidence points to his guilt. 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