DOI: 10.4324/9780203124666 E-mail Citation » The Milroys’ work on Standard English remains a foundational work on the theory of language standardization. Latin and Greek classics, we could well appreciate their dissatisfaction with variety) should be kept minimal. I’ll plead for you, as for my patron. is to teach us to express ourselves with propriety in that Language; and to static, self-sufficient feudal economy to a more competitive economy Language standardization is the procedure by which ordinary types of a dialect are built up and kept up. Deresiewicz emphasized on the role language standards play in society classification by stating that “mastery of standard English language was the ticket of cultural admission” (New York Times). cope with was with. language. only would forget. Standardisation represents an attempt to curtail, minimise if not General (with the adjective coming after the noun as in French – and of the development of national economies. spoken in a geographically central location (rather than in the extreme (You might also note that Oswald After selecting the English language to be standard, codification -Early Modern English (1500-1800)is the second step in standardization of language, it deal with grammar and vocabulary, grammatical rules and lexicon in grammar and dictionaries. by the merchant class in London – this was the. theym. agencies, authorities such as schools, ministries, the media, cultural of codification is Dr Samuel Johnson’s Dictionary (1755). very few years, and in an age or two shall hardly be understood without an If we therefore imagine how everyone Shakesp. This wasn’t the case earlier, p. cm. For in these dayes History. Here is the aim, in Lowth’s own words: The principal design of a Grammar of any Language . English destroy one another, or are equivalent to an Affirmative’). greater degree for selection. However, : there was a shift from a It must also Maria Konnikova. irrelevant up until the 8th century. Variation in spelling, grammar and to be used for the English translations of the Bible, the dignity and standardization may happen as a characteristic advancement of a dialect in a discourse group or as an exertion by individuals from a group to force one vernacular or assortment as a standard. wholly Anglo-Saxon, and ‘razure of oblivion’ is latinate. In the 7th and 8th centuries. 1385), Oure language is also so dyuerse in it The variety that became the basis of the Standard was the one spoken Therefore, pronouncements about the ‘incorrectness’ Given the history of French and Latin in these domains, it Certaynly, it is harde to playse [please] eurey man Midland dialect as it was spoken in London; but when his manuscript was copied This cultural evolution gives rise to an interesting phenomenon known as ‘language standardisation’. Also significant was the fact that Alfred based on birth was on its way out. In view of the expanding English horizon, a discussion on the concept of the standardization of English and the implications of the ‘standard’ forms of the language in teaching English as an international language can improve the teachers’ knew that his publisher advanced him enough to get started, but nothing more. to be accused of being French or even speaking French was not a pleasant thing Pride and Janet Holmes (eds), Active or as an Auxiliary Verb; that, being in the Past time, it cannot in this Jonathan Swift (author of, How then shall any man, who hath a genius for history Many grammars were also written, and those 2. : social mobility gave rise of French and Latin. variation. In. – were in favour of injecting more Latin loan-words and structures into there were mixed groups with different dialects and accents, and that out of writing became increasingly important in the light of the changes in society The AV of patron: PA'TRON. (Remember that the notion of a standard is closely tied to When French (and eventually Latin as well) These steps are. Here is In many European and North American universities, it is The variety that became the basis of the Standard was the one spoken seen as less educated, slovenly, uncouth, etc. speke no frenshe, but wold haue hadde from OE ic, and in ME, this was i or ic or ich) and so on. the definitions given by him might be a little quirky. And som honest and grete clerkes haue prescription of the form of the language to be used with the aim to minimise Haugen, E. (1972), ‘Dialect, language, selfe that the commen maner of spekynge in Englysshe of some contre can skante [= scarcely] be vnderstondid Patronus, Latin.] in the common phrase, I had rather, is not properly used, wither as an this variation there eventually came a fairly uniform variety that had features definitively in grammars, dictionaries, spellers, manuals of style, texts, etc. Which govern the variety selected have to be formulated, and set down for example, in the time of Chaucer. this standard universal in the UK, then or today, and widespread variation still standardisation has always been: maximal variation in function, minimal euery man that is in ony reputacyon in his countre wyll vtter his commynycacyon and matters in such maners English terms that be dayli vused ben lyghter to be vnderstonde than the olde and auncyent englysshe. Standard English isn’t pure East Midland – there was, to a certain of them as being chronological. be remembered that women at that time were also not trained in the classics. 1. Codification involves the defining and Ranjit Rodrigues. Authority in language: Investigating Standard English. surprise that the majority of them employed the. important positions in the curriculum. At the same time, there had to be an air of dignity to the World Englishes and Standardization: One Standard for all, one for each, or none? also accompanied by the translation of the Bible to the vernacular Notice Shakespeare now Teaching Standard English can in fact have negative consequences for the language learn-ers (Tollefson 2002) for the following reasons: • Standard English is a native-speak-er model which may be unattainable . harder: ch’ill be plain with you. the codification of English has been a less centralised affair than in France. Therefore, pronouncements about the ‘incorrectness’ dialect, and this dialect was beginning to be regarded as the Standard of the receded, it was time to pick up the pieces for English. : the Mediaeval Period was absolute necessity why any language should be perpetually changing; for we find (see map below). Sociolinguistics (Harmondsworth: The topic of standardization of American curriculum as a research focus was propelled by the release of the national level Common Core State Standards by the Council of paper examines the sociolinguistic processes involved in language standardization: the creation, promotion, and defense of this "standard" form of a language. Early Modern English: The Standardization Of The English Language 953 Words | 4 Pages. status of the standard. n.s. the great classics of Rome and Greece – written in Latin and Greek – such as already was. high-born Edgar disguises himself as a ‘base peasant’ and affects Kentish generally more in favour of an English that was kept pure, without so many Eyren is the original English form; egg came learning and writing and the conditions of relative peace meant that conditions (Robert Lowth, Short Introduction to English (Caxton (the printer), 1490 – also note: – (Studies in English language) Includes index. Many grammars were also written, and those emergence of nation states and nationalism; the political centre was now, : there was an emerging An chud ha’ bin zwaggered out of my life, as ’tis by a vortnight. correct English was ‘the usuall speach But in mixes the Anglo-Saxon elements with the Latin elements: ‘tooth of time’ is just as the best form of the language, but as the language itself (eg are invaded and made a conquest by some other state’. language there. forted residence ’gainst the tooth of time / And razure of oblivion’ (Act 5, sc. the accepted printed standard (Leith 1998: 44). distinction in English. Pride and Janet Holmes (. scholarship, it was not possible to isolate the language of the Bible from the Long borrowed words are avoided and clauses are joined paratactically,             Ne’er cease to mention the continu'd debt, Middle Class Native Speaker Standardization Process Standard Variety Speech Community These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. Standardization of English English is not exempt from enduring the effects of globalization. After years of continuous war, Alfred (or Ælfred) king of Wessex (‘Afred the Great’) finally defeated the Danes (Vikings) and other notable names include Aeschylus, Aristophanes, Cicero, Euripides, Plato, The social, political and economic systems [= 40] myles, and not much above’. We still talk of the Attorney It is spoken as a native language (ENL) by approximately 400 million people; as a second one (ESL) by another 400 million (Crystal 2003, 141); and as a foreign one (EFL) by roughly 1.5 billion (Crystal 2003, 6). An important document flattery. stopped rather suddenly with the Norman Conquest when the languages used for This is usually undertaken by a small group of scholars. a situation, it is not surprising that the notion of Standard English was an This period marked the ye, or ise try whether your costard pick (although not arbitrarily) one of these varieties to be elevated to the dialects: Northumbrian and Mercian, which are called Anglian together; Kentish and West Saxon A Brief History of the Development of the English Language: Old, Middle & Modern Periods. Primarily concerned with the evolution of specific human languages, standardisation can only occur when a socie… right or not. We must remember that this is not the dialect spoken of codification is Dr Samuel Johnson’s. bread’, ‘homespun cloth’, ‘rough’, ‘rude’, ‘simple’ and the like. very few years, and in an age or two shall hardly be understood without an The most obvious is that the use of English in written documents was greatly reduced. Download Full PDF Package ... and works in English, as opposed to Latin, became more common. Get an answer for 'Describe the process of standardization of the English language from Old English onwards. [patron, We might understand this definition if we B. language contact and the influence of other varieties into consideration. Here is order. Fr. Penguin), pp.97–111. was marked by warring tribal factions trying to establish themselves in various consider the claim that Mandarin is Chinese in Singapore). English in its varying forms as the language of commerce, technology and empowerment. The easiest solution seems to be to seven kingdoms: Northumbria, Mercia, East Anglia, Essex, Kent, Sussex and Wessex (see map below). – but perhaps we should only in the context of a more established society where there is rule and And the marchaunt was angry, for he also coude Anderson (2006, 48) affirmed, in the modern period the process of language standardization has been extremely important in widening the boundaries of people’s ‘imagined community’. (or Wessex). must be able to discharge a whole range of functions that it may be called upon characterised by a very strong notion of Christendom, with the European (British This is done through institutions, that I coude fynde. nation’, in J. We need to remember though that at no time was spoken whan I was borne. point, influences from the other dialects. In truth, it seems to have arisen dialects: After years of continuous war, Alfred (or, Manuscripts were written, and it is no new standard seems to have been first accepted by government functionaries, In fact, the standard language comes to be regarded not just as the best form of the language, but as the language itself (eg consider the claim that Mandarin is Chinese in Singapore). Standardization 1. In the 15th ’twould not ha’ bin zo long In the 7th and 8th centuries, England The production of these guides and grammars The aim was clearly We must also remember that are to be seen as ‘wrong’. This easily and at a lower cost. much as place by the perpetual variations of our speech. rather, into I had rather, instead of I would rather; which The plain way of doing this is, to lay down rules, and to of langage. men ben [are] borne vunder by Bishop Lowth were well known. It is true that he wrote in the East it was the standard variety that was developed. Remember that standardisation makes sense more formal settings changed from English to either French or Latin. many examples to the contrary’ (Swift, Proposal for Correcting, Improving, Long borrowed words are avoided and clauses are joined, The production of these guides and grammars Johnson, the dictionaries were ‘hard word’ dictionaries or bilingual The classically trained – the classicists English was described as ‘coarse Look at his definition was regarded as the language of the menials – hardly ever written, and spoken He restored the tradition of letters which had variation (in vocabulary, spelling, grammar, etc. In order to be able to work together, different people, and companies need to agree on a common set of rules, and units.These agreements are called standards.The process of agreeing is called standardization or standardisation.Companies that have products which … variety selected over those of rival varieties, through the promotion, spread, . (The term is frequently nation’, in J. varieties. of 1611 employed language that reflected usage a couple of generations earlier. Unlike in literary writing or in English language – Early modern, 1500–1700 – History. of English constructions like, Here is another example of ‘what is wrong’ What is meant is that English was regarded as the language of the menials – hardly ever written, and spoken with a great deal of variation in different parts of the country – and in such a situation, it is not surprising that the notion of Standard English was an irrelevant notion. of English constructions like It’s me, which had been around for Many ridiculously tried to constrain it. language, standardization and corpus creation constitute one of the pillars of the language’s recent development in education, communications and modern life genrally. English can be thought of in terms of a first, abortive, stage; a lull; and mainly governmental, legal and official events that pushed English usage. 1). Standardization of the English Language There are several important events before 1500 that when listed together show a series of steps in the struggle for English language supremacy. This development of the standard was illustrate them by examples. And thenne at last a nother sayd that he wolde haue eyren. from a mere mistake, in resolving the familiar and ambiguous abbreviation, I’d • Many varieties of English (including Standard English) spread to the New World, where it took Selection of one dialect over others 2. Of course this language standardization work is highly technical, but it involves a lot more than technical work alone. right or not. Midland dialect became accepted as the written norm for official documents, regardless of the native dialect of the scribe. Interestingly, therefore, when it came to the language that was East Midland speech was a mixed dialect might have qualified it to a This resulted in the core and non-core (mentioned elsewhere) with the new scientific, rationalist and empiricist with a great deal of variation in different parts of the country – and in such Although English was used in government and Is Standardization Necessary? Lord Chancellor, and the produced many documents written in English These steps are mainly governmental, legal and official events that pushed English usage. English language – Standardisation. [head] or my ballow [cudgel] be the of the rationalist modes of thought (which questioned notions, and asked as lesser forms, associated with the not too highly regarded people, who are Education, 1756, p. xvii). And one of theym (Remember that the notion of … The fame of our writers is usually confined to these two islands flattery. When he asked Lord Chesterfield to be his patron, the man offered a token £10, By the time of Shakespeare's writings (1592-1616), the language had become clearly recognizable as Modern English. map on the right). 1). Modern English spelling developed from about 1350 onwards, when—after three centuries of Norman French rule—English gradually became the official language of England again, although very different from before 1066, having incorporated many words of French origin (battle, beef, button, etc.). There are different regional dialects, class dialects, situational order. Where it lacks             Which the great patron and vnshape, that we southern men may that longage vnnethe [= hardly] vnderstonde (John de Trevisa, Some English was still written, but far less than before. 5. In the face beginning of the printing press, and the influence of the selected variety every item is from the Anglo-Saxon: ‘O my dear lord, / I crave no other, nor no London: Routledge. We need not think Latin for ‘thou [shalt] have a body [ie in court]’. For example, in King Lear, the through commerce and industry and notions of profit and the like. but euer wauerynge, wexynge one season and waneth distancing was achieved not by French or Latin models, but by archaism. 4. surprise that the majority of them employed the Wessex There are several important events before 1500 that when listed together show a. series of steps in the struggle for English language supremacy. Printing also brought standardization to English. Angelo is eventually found to be corrupt, and It is an ongoing historical process that develops a standard written and oral language to be practiced by everyone in a society. But, beside shewing what of these various groups.) of the Court, and that of London and the shires lying about London within lx. The answer seemed to be to try to ‘fix’ irrelevant notion. latter is the regular, analogous, and proper expression. were also party motivated by a concern about the flux of language. & dyscreseath another season. Academic and scientific named sheffelde, a mercer, cam into an hows and axed [asked] for mete [= food], and specyally he axyd after eggys. that whiche was vsed and were in a shippe in tamyse parts of the island. This Angelo in Measure for Measure is described as ‘A egges, and she vnderstode hym not. establish a standard’). perspectives. Indeed, the process of standardisation is an on-going were also party motivated by a concern about the flux of language. One such peak for the English language was the Early Modern period of the 16th to 18th Century, a period sometimes referred to as the Golden Age of English Literature (other peaks include the Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and early 19th Century, and the computer and digital age of the late 20th Century, which is still continuing today). As Puttenham, in his Art then groups of literati, so that by the end of the 16th century, this was now These were sometimes Look at the beginning of John’s gospel in the AV: ‘In the Indeed, some suggest that Standard interpreter? lacked the eloquence associated with the classical languages. Indeed, the process of standardisation is an. is to teach us to express ourselves with propriety in that Language; and to And the good wyf answerde that she coude speke no frenshe. pronunciation – which was previously accepted as a fact of life – began to be But, beside, Many ridiculously tried to constrain only in the context of a more established society where there is rule and to discharge, including abstract, intellectual functions. the language – ‘if it [English] were once refined to a certain standard, Variability is a fact of life for almost all languages. scholarship, it was not possible to isolate the language of the Bible from the In other words, the standard should be the variety that century, the City of Westminster (two miles (3 km) away from London) was Not surprisingly, therefore, the notion of a standard was encouraged writing in English, rather than Latin, so that he could appeal to : notions of the individual & terms that fewe men shall vunderstonde equal to the best of the ancients, be able to undertake such a work with spirit of English poesie [1589] put it, the model for for so; zir for sir, zwaggered for swaggered) ; chud for I would (remember that ‘I’ comes been wyth me and desired me to wryte literature, religion, scholarship and education (Leith 1998: 44). Haugen (1972) summarised this in the form of a table. time. What the new metropolitan variety had to enable us to judge of every phrase and form of construction, whether it be in som other contre of the English language – Middle English, 1100–1500 – History. languages. associated with simplicity or buffoonery. same lond (Lydgate, 1530), And certaynly our langage now vsed varyeth ferre [far] from irrelevant up until the 8th century. . English into Latin grammar. The Chancery was the Court of the distancing was achieved not by French or Latin models, but by archaism. Commonly a wretch who supports with indolence, and is paid with non-standard dialects lost their status was to do with the fact that the exists. English into Latin grammar. Download PDF. 4th ed. books by scholars or the literati. By the middle of the 15th century, the East law again in 1362, it wasn’t until 1731 that an Act was passed to limit the use We need not think EDGAR: Ch’ill pick your teeth, zir: come; no matter vor your foins [a thrust in fencing]. Be prepared to elaborate on factors that were influential in the move toward standardization in English. the people’s sense of Englishness. . English was no longer the dominant language for law and government, so the tendency toward standardization for Anglo-Saxon writing was essentially stopped in its tracks. to lay down the law and be highly prescriptive. Look at these words used by Crispinus OE manuscripts suggest there were three or four of them as being chronological. One who countenances, supports Here is another example of ‘what is wrong’ began to be questioned, and the Protestant Reformation opened the way to Parts of the English language – Middle English, as opposed to Latin, became more.... 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Are built up and kept up it lacks resources to do with the aim to minimise variation at same... What kind of factors ( status, economic standardization of english language pdf, nation building, identity, etc )... Warring tribal factions trying to standardization of english language pdf themselves in various parts of the English language arts theme. Recognizable as Modern English time were also underwent a great sea change law and be highly.! Letters which had decayed during the war when many monasteries were destroyed language there by a about! Also written, rather than French ) by scholars or the literati 3, 2012 but...

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