English: Monsoon rain in Kerala. Over India, a subtropical westerly jet develops in the winter season and is replaced by the tropical easterly jet in the summer season. Kerala was also flooded in 2018 and 2019 . As a security measure in the prevailing situation of heavy rains, the India Meteorological Department had issued Red alert in the 9 districts in Northern and Central Kerala, orange alert in 3 districts of Central Kerala, and yellow alert in the 2 districts of southern Kerala. [5] The state is reeling under damage to property worth Rs 19,000 crore, death of people, livestock and heavy loss to agriculture, especially in Kuttanad, Alappuzha, also known as ‘Kerala’s Rice Bowl’ and the state has submitted a comprehensive plan to Central government to improve the disaster management capacity of the state. Daytime scene showing the pre-monsoon air over India. Kerala has mainly two rainy seasons. Timing: A timely northward shift of the subtropical westerly jet at the beginning of summer is critical to the onset of the southwest monsoon over India. The reverse condition is known as La Niña. The jet stream theory also explains the variability in timing and strength of the monsoon. Bursting of monsoon refers to the sudden change in weather conditions in India (typically from hot and dry weather to wet and humid weather during the southwest monsoon), characterized by an abrupt rise in the mean daily rainfall. [16], One of the most commonly used words to describe the erratic nature of the monsoon is "vagaries", used in newspapers,[17] magazines,[18] books,[19] web portals[20] to insurance plans,[21] and India's budget discussions. Monsoon rains are likely to hit the southern Kerala coast in two days, a top weather official said on Monday, easing concerns about the onset delay threatening plantings of … A normal monsoon is generally accepted to be one involving close to the average quantity of precipitation over all the geographical locations under its influence (mean spatial distribution) and over the entire expected time period (mean temporal distribution). On 7 August 2020, due to heavy rainfall in the monsoon season, severe floods affected Kerala, India. The main types are the polar jets, the subtropical westerly jets, and the less common tropical easterly jets. Only part of the northeast monsoon passing over the Bay of Bengal picks up moisture, causing rain in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu during the winter months. Additionally, the arrival date and the departure date of both the southwest and northeast monsoon should be close to the mean dates. Mid October witnesses the arrival of the Northeast Monsoon. Consequently, the air above coastal lands heats up faster than the air above seas. There is a changing trend in Kerala tourism seen these days of Monsoon tourism. This theory tries to explain the establishment of the northeast and southwest monsoons, as well as unique features like "bursting" and variability. [30] Walker noticed that the quantity of rainfall in the Indian subcontinent was often negligible in years of high pressure over Darwin (and low pressure over Tahiti). [53], In the past, Indians usually refrained from traveling during monsoons for practical as well as religious reasons. There have been books written and films made which showcase the beauty of the state during the season. Although the ENSO effect was statistically effective in explaining several past droughts in India, in recent decades, its relationship with the Indian monsoon seemed to weaken. 545 Relief Camps were opened by the Government of Kerala and 12121 inmates were admitted into these relief camps. [6], The unnatural increase in rainfall was caused by a monsoon surge, which was aided by a strong Somali Current or Somali Jet and a low-pressure on the Bay of Bengal which dragged strong monsoon winds towards the Western Coast of India. The dynamic theory explains the monsoon on the basis of the annual shifts in the position of global belts of pressure and winds. As such, the shift of the jet is sudden and abrupt, causing the bursting of southwest monsoon rains onto the Indian plains. This is known as sea breeze. Kerala to witness more pre-Monsoon rains March 16, 2017 12:48 PM | Skymet Weather Team Most parts of Kerala have been witnessing dry weather conditions in the month of February. As part of humanitarian response from NGO's - IAG Kerala, RedR India and Sphere India conveyed a meeting on Palakkad for the preparedness and response plan with respect to the ongoing heavy rainfall situation and all districts Inter Agency Group (IAGs) are activated in the State on August 8th. Change of direction or origin of winds alters their nomenclature as noted above. The peninsular/Deccan rivers of India are mostly rain-fed and non-perennial in nature, depending primarily on the monsoon for water supply. [55][56] As such, the flora, fauna, and entire ecosystems of these areas rely heavily on the monsoon. Kerala is one of the top destinations for tourists interested in Ayurvedic treatments and massage therapy. [12] In India monsoons create an entire season in which the winds reverse completely. The average temperature remains between 20°C and 35°C and the rainfall ranges between 2250 and 2500 mm. The reverse shift happens for the northeast monsoon. An extravagant place for spending monsoon in Kerala; known for the famous Bekal fort this place is packed with many other forts, beaches and hills. [29] However, it was later discovered that, just like ENSO in the Pacific Ocean, a similar seesaw ocean-atmosphere system in the Indian Ocean was also in play. It has a significant effect on the overall well-being of residents and has even been dubbed the "real finance minister of India".[4][5]. Thus, Walker established the relationship between southern oscillation and quantities of monsoon rains in India. [38] Future changes in the monsoon will depend on a competition between land and ocean—on which is warming faster than the other. [29], Ultimately, the southern oscillation was found to be simply an atmospheric component of the El Niño/La Niña effect, which happens in the ocean. Onam Festivities Be part of the Onam festivities during your trip to Kerala . [29] When EQUINOO effects are factored in, certain failed forecasts, like the acute drought of 2002, can be further accounted for. Prior to onset of Monsoon, pre-Monsoon weather activities pick up pace and the entire state of Kerala experiences intense rain showers. The ITCZ, as the zone of lowest pressure in the tropical region, is the target destination for the trade winds of both hemispheres. India’s southern state of Kerala is suffering its worst monsoon flooding in a century, with more than one million people displaced, and more than 400 reported deaths in the past two weeks. Monsoon is an ideal time for Ayurvedic treatments in Kerala, it is believed that Ayurveda therapies work best in the rainy season as the pores of the skin opens during this season. There are some unique features of the rains that the monsoon brings to the Indian subcontinent. On 8 August 2019, due to heavy rainfall in the Monsoon season, severe flood affected Kerala. [44] However, following the 2009 drought in India (worst since 1972),[46] The department decided in 2010 that it needed to develop an "indigenous model"[47] to further improve its prediction capabilities. This is the southwest monsoon. [159] These create areas of low air pressure above coastal lands compared with pressure over the seas, causing winds to flow from the seas onto the neighboring lands. Therefore, the agricultural calendar of India is governed by the monsoon. This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 Generic license. Since the Great Famine of 1876–78 in India, various attempts have been made to predict monsoon rainfall. Since the strength of the monsoon is partially dependent on the temperature difference between the ocean and the land, higher ocean temperatures in the Indian Ocean have weakened the moisture bearing winds from the ocean to the land. [50], The onset of the monsoon increases fungal and bacterial activity. The Western Ghats are the first highlands of India that the southwest monsoon winds encounter. The unique geographic relief features of the Indian subcontinent come into play in allowing all of the above factors to occur simultaneously. Places like Kerala and the Western Ghats get a large number of tourists, both local and foreigners, during the monsoon season. The word monsoon (derived from the Arabic "mausim", meaning "seasonal reversal of winds"), although generally defined as a system of winds characterized by a seasonal reversal of direction,[6] lacks a consistent, detailed definition. [50] As a result, the Indian government is actively working with farmers and the nation's meteorological department to produce more drought resistant crops. This shift is due to the intense heating of the plateau during the summer months. [Note 5] However, because of the Coriolis effect (which causes winds in the Northern Hemisphere to turn right, whereas winds in the Southern Hemisphere turn left), these southeast trade winds are deflected east in the Northern Hemisphere, transforming into southwest trades. The effect is known to have a pronounced influence on the strength of the southwest monsoon over India, with the monsoon being weak (causing droughts) during El Niño years, while La Niña years bring particularly strong monsoons.[29]. [41] At least five prediction models exist. NEW DELHI: The monsoon, which hit Kerala on Saturday after a week’s delay, has advanced into more areas in the state, southern Tamil Nadu and Lakshadweep among other regions, including the southern Arabian Sea.Rain is likely to be lower than average across the country in June and July before strengthening in the final two months of the season, an official said, underscoring worries … 483 osoby zginęły, a co najmniej 82 400 zostało uratowanych.. Powodzie. An orange alert was also issued for five districts. See photos taken only three months apart in the Western Ghats. This system was discovered in 1999 and named the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). [33] The observed monsoon rainfall indicates a gradual decline over central India, with a reduction of up to 10%. These are the most monitored components of the monsoon, and they determine the water availability in India for any given year. This criticism does not deny the role of differential heating of sea and land in generating monsoon winds, but casts it as one of several factors rather than the only one. [43] The economic significance of the monsoon is aptly described by Pranab Mukherjee's remark that the monsoon is the "real finance minister of India". The Southwest Monsoon that arrives in the month of June is called Edavappathy, as it comes in the middle of the month of Edavam on the Malayalam Calendar. Strength: The strength of the southwest monsoon is determined by the strength of the easterly tropical jet over central India. 2018 Kerala floods Date July 2018 (2018-07) – August 2018 Location Kerala, India Cause Low pressure Heavy rain Discharges Landslide Deaths 483 dead,140 went missing Property damage ₹ 400 billion (US$5.6 billion) (estimated) On 16 August 2018, severe floods affected the south Indian state Kerala, due to unusually high rainfall during the monsoon season. This crowds city slums and aggravates the infrastructure and sustainability of city life. [49] About 49% of India's land is agricultural; that number rises to 55% if associated wetlands, dryland farming areas, etc., are included. Kerala's average maximum daily temperature is around 37 °C; the minimum is 19.8 °C. The dynamic theory explains the monsoon as a global weather phenomenon rather than just a local one. The monsoon is the primary delivery mechanism for fresh water in the Indian subcontinent. First observed by World War II pilots, they develop just below the tropopause over areas of steep pressure gradient on the surface. It affects the Indian subcontinent, where it is one of the oldest and most anticipated weather phenomena and an economically important pattern every year from June through September, but it is only partly understood and notoriously difficult to predict. School Certificates Ruined In Flood, Kerala … [29] Further, the two poles of the IOD – the eastern pole (around Indonesia) and the western pole (off the African coast) — independently and cumulatively affect the quantity of monsoon rains. The northward shift is not a slow and gradual process, as expected for most changes in weather pattern. The prevailing winds of the atmospheric circulation arise because of the difference in pressure at various latitudes and act as means for distribution of thermal energy on the planet. Now also, Monsoon is yet to mark its onset in Kerala. However, invariably Monsoon arrives over the state before or after its normal onset date. They give rise to slowly moving upper-air waves, with 250-knot winds in some air streams. Monsoon season in Kerala comes twice a year. In the case of the monsoon, the cause is primarily orographic, due to the presence of highlands in the path of the winds. [4][5] The reduction in the summer monsoon rainfall have grave consequences over central India because at least 60% of the agriculture in this region is still largely rain-fed. However, geophysical factors like Earth's orbit, its rotation, and its axial tilt cause these belts to shift gradually north and south, following the Sun's seasonal shifts. According to this theory, the monsoon is a result of the shift of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) under the influence of the vertical sun. Kerala's rains are mostly the result of seasonal monsoons. [29] Walker noticed that when pressure was high in Tahiti, it was low in Darwin, and vice versa. [29] With a positive IOD, winds over the Indian Ocean blow from east to west. [49] A recent assessment of the monsoonal changes indicate that the land warming has increased during 2002–2014, possibly reviving the strength of the monsoon circulation and rainfall. The jet streams are systems of upper-air westerlies. The floods resulted in the death of at least 22 people. Rain is a heady concoction of emotions which has to be witnessed in all its grandeur. [26][27], The northeast monsoon usually "bursts" around 20 October and lasts for about 50 days before withdrawing. As one of the tropical destination, Kerala is now at heavenly climate throughout this monsoon season. [11], Monsoons typically occur in tropical areas. Conversely, low pressure over Darwin bodes well for precipitation quantity in India. The Monsoon season in Kerala is indeed a heavenly spectacle as the whole of earth rejoices after being revived from the harsh summer spell. To be in Kerala during the Onam festival is a delight. [55] In summer, most of Kerala is prone to gale-force winds, storm surges, and torrential downpours accompanying dangerous cyclones coming in off the Indian Ocean. Despite progress in alternative forms of irrigation, agricultural dependence on the monsoon remains far from insignificant. Its position as the sole authority on the monsoon was cemented in 2005[42] by the Department of Science and Technology (DST), New Delhi. 1. The Himalayas play more than the role of orographic barriers for the monsoon. About Monsoon in Kerala! A host of mosquito-borne, water-borne and air-borne infections become more common as a result of the change in the ecosystem. [39][40] Widespread extreme rainfall events are those rainfall events which are larger than 150 mm/day and spread over a region large enough to cause floods. Geographical features of the Indian subcontinent. Kerala is one of the top destinations for tourists interested in Ayurvedic treatments and massage therapy. The monsoon of western Sub-Saharan Africa is the result of the seasonal shifts of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and the great seasonal temperature and humidity differences between the Sahara and the equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Without them, the southwest monsoon winds would blow right over the Indian subcontinent into, For the northeast monsoon, the highlands of the, This page was last edited on 8 January 2021, at 10:29. The relevant features in explaining the monsoon mechanism are as follows: Pink arrow: Southwest monsoon wind direction; green arrow: northeast monsoon wind direction. Places like Kerala and the Western Ghats get a large number of tourists, both local and foreigners, during the monsoon season. This results in the southwest monsoon. Striking a perfect balance between the hilly areas and the coastal region, monsoon in Kerala are majorly of two types. A good monsoon results in better agricultural yields, which brings down prices of essential food commodities and reduces imports, thus reducing food inflation overall. This is the absolute destination to enjoy Monsoon in Kerala. With the northward shift of the vertical sun, this jet shifts north, too. But with the advent of globalization, such travel is gaining popularity. Sometimes, despite average annual rainfall, the daily distribution or geographic distribution of the rain is substantially skewed. Monsoon is a climate welcomed by all. Date: 8 July 2007: Source: Transferred from ml.wikipedia to Commons by Sreejithk2000 using CommonsHelper. As a result, Kerala averages some 120–140 rainy days per year. South West Monsoon. With around 120–140 rainy days per year,: 80 Kerala has a wet and maritime tropical climate influenced by the seasonal heavy rains of the southwest summer monsoon and northeast winter monsoon. [51], D. Subbarao, former governor of the Reserve Bank of India, emphasized during a quarterly review of India's monetary policy that the lives of Indians depend on the performance of the monsoon. Between the two monsoon seasons, the temperature remains cool in most parts of Kerala. Monsoon season in Kerala is a unique experience. One major drawback of traveling during the monsoon is that most wildlife sanctuaries are closed. Updated: 10 Jun 2019, 08:06 AM IST Nidheesh M.K. If the shift is delayed, so is the southwest monsoon. Although the southwest and northeast monsoon winds are seasonally reversible, they do cause precipitation on their own. [11][24][25] Its withdrawal from India typically starts at the beginning of September and finishes by the beginning of October. [29] In negative dipole years, the reverse happens, making Indonesia much warmer and rainier. This results in the north-to-south flow of the winds in the form of the northeast monsoon. But with continuous dropping pressure, sufficient force is created for the movement of the westerly jet across the Himalayas after a significant period. The warm surface water moving toward the coast of Peru with El Niño is pushed west by the trade winds, thereby raising the temperature of the southern Pacific Ocean. In 2003, IMD substantially changed its forecast methodology, model,[44] and administration. El Niño is a warm ocean current originating along the coast of Peru that replaces the usual cold Humboldt Current. The reverse happens during the winter, when the land is colder than the sea, establishing a pressure gradient from land to sea. These include diseases such as dengue, malaria, cholera, and colds. [1] Heavy rains in Idukki have caused severe landslide in Munnar in which at least 52 people died and nearly 19 were reported missing. Theories of the mechanism of the monsoon primarily try to explain the reasons for the seasonal reversal of winds and the timing of their reversal. All of these factors have positive ripple effects throughout the economy of India. Also known as the thermal theory or the differential heating of sea and land theory, the traditional theory portrays the monsoon as a large-scale sea breeze. Southwest monsoon, from June to August, is the main rainy season. [31] For example, the strong ENSO of 1997 did not cause drought in India. The reverse shift takes place for the northeast monsoon winds, leading to a second, minor burst of rainfall over the eastern Indian Peninsula during the Northern Hemisphere winter months. The monsoon turns large parts of India from semi-deserts into green grasslands. People love the Kerala experience during the monsoon. Monsoon hit the Kerala coast today after being delayed by a week commencing the four-month rainfall season in the country. But with the advent of globalization, such travel is gaining popularity. A view of a flooded road after Monsoon rains in Kochi Kerala took lessons from 2018 floods, all set to manage any disaster this monsoon 3 min read. Meanwhile, there has been a three-fold rise in widespread extreme rainfall events during the years 1950 to 2015, over the entire central belt of India, leading to a steady rise in the number of flash floods with significant socioeconomic losses. According to this theory, the onset of the southwest monsoon is driven by the shift of the subtropical westerly jet north from over the plains of India toward the Tibetan Plateau. Heavy rains in Idukki have caused severe landslide in Munnar in which at least 52 people died and nearly 19 were reported missing. Third, they contribute to the convergence of the Bay of Bengal branch and Arabian Sea branch of the southwest monsoon winds, increasing the intensity of precipitation over the northern part of the subcontinent. New Delhi: Kerala, one of the southernmost states of India that shares its coastline with the Arabian Sea, has experienced numerous floods in the past.Monsoon has wreaked havoc in ‘God’s Own Country’ for decades and what we see today is just another paradigm of nature’s fury. An index to calculate it was also formulated. And when coupled with the traditional theory (based on the heating of sea and land), it enhances the explanation of the varying intensity of monsoon precipitation along the coastal regions with orographic barriers. The summer monsoon and the winter monsoon determine the climate for most of India and Southeast Asia and the Monsoon that hist Kerala in June for which the entire India waits for is the summer monsoon.The summer monsoon has been called Indias true finance minister and when the monsoon is late, the regions economy suffers. [45] A sixteen-parameter monsoon forecasting model used since 1988 was replaced in 2003. The dry, northeasterly trade winds, and their more extreme form, the harmattan, are interrupted by the northern s… [citation needed], Seasonal Prediction of Indian Monsoon (SPIM), The name of the wind is based on the direction that it blows, First, the Himalayas serve as orographic barriers to the southwest monsoon winds. However, many meteorologists argue that the monsoon is not a local phenomenon as explained by the traditional theory, but a general weather phenomenon along the entire tropical zone of Earth. The department has tried to forecast the monsoon for India since 1884,[41] and is the only official agency entrusted with making public forecasts about the quantity, distribution, and timing of the monsoon rains. No need to register, buy now! This jet creates a low-pressure zone over the northern Indian plains, influencing the wind flow toward these plains and assisting the development of the southwest monsoon[clarification needed]. [Note 7]. Recent trends in average annual precipitation from monsoons. This makes the Arabian Sea (the western Indian Ocean near the African coast) much warmer and the eastern Indian Ocean around Indonesia colder and drier. [2] As a security measure during the prevailing situation of heavy rains, the India Meteorological Department issued a red alert for the 3 districts of Wayanad, Kozhikkode and Idukki. Take a journey to this historic destination with your loved ones , famously known for the song from Bombay movie. Any fluctuations in the time distribution, spatial distribution, or quantity of the monsoon rains may lead to floods or droughts, causing the agricultural sector to suffer. Because the southwest monsoon flows from sea to land, it carries more moisture, and therefore causes more rain, than the northeast monsoon. The exact criteria for a normal monsoon are defined by the Indian Meteorological Department with calculations for the mean and standard deviation of each of these variables.[28]. A strong easterly tropical jet results in a strong southwest monsoon over central India, and a weak jet results in a weak monsoon. [34] This is primarily due to a weakening monsoon circulation as a result of the rapid warming in the Indian Ocean,[35][36] and changes in land use and land cover,[37] while the role of aerosols remain elusive. [29] A Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), based on the pressure difference between Tahiti and Darwin, has been formulated by the Bureau of Meteorology (Australia) to measure the strength of the oscillation. Kerala was also flooded in 2018 and 2019. According to this theory, during the summer months in the Northern Hemisphere, the ITCZ shifts north, pulling the southwest monsoon winds onto the land from the sea. However, the huge landmass of the Himalayas restricts the low-pressure zone onto the Himalayas themselves. Meanwhile, Monsoon rains may reduce marginally over Kerala and adjoining South Karnataka. The unique geographical features of the Indian subcontinent, along with associated atmospheric, oceanic, and geophysical factors, influence the behavior of the monsoon. The ITCZ migrates northward from the equatorial Atlantic in February, reaches western Africa on or near June 22, then moves back to the south by October. 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