Retting: For fibre extraction, the jute stems are retted in water for 3-4 days, after harvesting and defoliation of plants in the fields. Insitu Jute Retting contd. Ali, M. M. & M. A. Islam. Abstract BBS.2008. So, ribbon retting is a great promise to produce high quality jute fibre in one hand and a more eco-friendly measure on the other. Ponds in villages are not allowed for jute retting in general as the water turns dark and foul-smelling making it unfit for domestic use and pisciculture, breeds mosquitoes and creates environmental problem. Chaudhury, S. D. 1953. The stalks, over 3 meters in height, are gathered by hand and softened in water. Land – Jute can grow in wide range of soil but fertile loamy alluvial soil is better suitable.. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Ribbon retting of jute—a prospective and eco-friendly method for improvement of fibre quality. Jute fiber develops in the phloem or bast region of the stem of the plants; in transverse sections of the stem. Present address: Crop Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibre, ICAR, Barackpore, India. The two retting types are ribbon retting and stem retting. Retting time must be carefully judged; under-retting makes separation difficult, and over-retting weakens the fibre. Ret definition, to soak in water or expose to moisture, as flax or hemp, to facilitate the removal of the fiber from the woody tissue by partial rotting. This process is faster than the traditional methods of retting and is already taking over the fibre-extraction industry and has been a go-to option for textile producers. Retting of jute in pond water increased the water As content by 0.2 to 2.0 mg L − 1. Amongst the bast fibre crops, kenaf apparently has some advantages such as lower cost of production, higher fibre yields, and greater flexibility as an agricultural resource, over … Retting in a tank was appreciably hastened by using the same water for successive batches of jute. Ali, M. M. & A. Rahman. Soil Sci.6: 119–128. Copyright © 2003 Published by Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0926-6690(02)00097-3. Microbia1: 65–70. After harvesting the jute bundles are kept in the field for 2 -3 days to allow leaf shedding. Retting microbes consume the non-fibrous cementing materials mainly pectin and hemicellulose. The processing of jute varieties such as Corchorus capsularis - white jute (Sada paat) and Hibiscus cannabinus (Mesta paat) are mainly used for jute cultivation in West Bengal nowadays.After harvesting the jute plants, jute fibres are extracted by retting. Usually mature stems of harvested jute plants are allowed to ret in pond or ditch water. The jute plant, a native of the Indian subcontinent, is a herbaceous annual growing to a height of around 10 to 12 feet with a central cylindrical stem, and 4- to 6-inch long light green leaves and yellow flowers. MATERIALS ANDMETHODS For the detection of the rettinig ability of such bac-teria, sterile jute-stem-tubes were prepared by intro- Cultivation is dependent on the climate, season, and soil. Jute is long, soft and shiny, with a length of 1 to 4 m and a diameter of from 17 to 20 microns. Moreover, the fibre filaments were stronger, improved coloured and finer textured compared to conventional stem retted jute fibres. Bunt, J. S. & A. D. Rovira. appl. Whole plant retting of jute and mesta with microbial consortium under controlled conditions reduced the retting duration by 7 days for jute, with improved fibre quality i.e. • The strength of fibre is very poor. Climate = Relative humidity between 40-90% and temperature between 17° C and 41°C, along with well distributed rainfall over 1200 mm is ideal for cultivation and growth of jute. Studies in jute retting aerobic bacteria. Prolonged immersion involves the risk of over-retting, probably because of the action of cellulolytic bacteria. Both over retting and under retting which are very difficult to control causes production of low grade jute fibre. Jour, agric. CAS  Correspondence to They appear as wedge-shaped bundles of cells intermingled with parenchyma cells and other soft tissue. Microbiol.6(2): 87–89. Runners: This is a defect where a long and hard barky ribbon of fibres remains in … different types of retting processes used for bast plants such as hemp, jute, flax, and kenaf, with an emphasis on kenaf. During the storage of fish, dynamic primary changes are taking place in numerous parts of the fish, including the eyes, skin, gills and muscle characteristics of the fish. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. • Total methane generation from jute production is estimated to be 18.8x1010 g/year. Harvesting & Retting = Jute crop can be harvested between 100 – 120 days. Sci.16: 453–58. 1955. • Under ground water was then added to the retting tank and the jute Jour. The increment was 1.1 to 4 times higher over the WHO safe limit (0.05 mg L − 1) for India and Bangladesh. 1944. Google Scholar. Studies on jute retting bacteria. M. Jalaluddin. 3. Ali, M. M. 1958. PubMed  1948.Laboratory manual on fundamental principles of bacteriology. But use of efficient pectinolytic microbial inoculum improves quality of fibre, further reduce the time of retting and the environmental pollution. Article  Eleven jute fibre extraction machines have been distributed among 11 farmers free of cost in the district. After this retting process is over, the non-fibrous matter of jute is scraped off in a process called "stripping", and then the fibers are separated by beating the stem with a paddle. Google Scholar. This fertile geographic region is shared by both Bangladesh and India (mainly West Bengal). Jute is an eco-friendly and bio-degradable natural product with no adverse effect on the environment. The ribbon retted jute fibres are absolutely free from bark and were of higher grade. Incomplete submergence produces croppy fiber of extremely low value. Most of the defects in fiber are … 1968. Jour. ... Agro-metrology and Retting. Over-retting was suspected for enzyme retting process with EDTA since relatively poorer bonding between the matrix and the fibre was observed. Pectic enzyme ofPenicillium frequentons involved in the retting of jute. Jute fibres are composed primarily of the plant materials cellulose (major component of plant fibre) and lignin (major components of wood fibre). Excellent fibre separation with ethylenediamine tetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMPA) has been reported [ 166 ]. A process called retting is used to remove the non-fibrous material from the stem and skin of the jute stalk. This investigation was carried over to detect aerobic jute retting bacteria. volume 24, pages137–141(1970)Cite this article. • Microbial consortium with a cfu (108 to 1010) was then applied to the jute bundles in the pond. Infinita Biotech. Economic Botany Retting softens the stalks and makes it possible to separate the fibrous material from the unusable material by hand. • The fibre is black in colour with poor lusture. Baruah, P. K. & H. K. Baruah. Bacteria capable of retting jute are present in pond water, in the soil of jute fields, and on the surface of jute plants. plant retting of jute and mesta has certain demerits. Acceleration of jute retting byBacillus cereus, certain chemicals and straw-water ratios. The jute fibres contain knots in places and it is caused by insect bite or punctures. Retting is a preferential rotting process to separate the fibre from woody stem without damaging the fibre cellulose. Climate – Relative humidity between 40-90% and temperature between 17° C and 41°C, along with well distributed rainfall over 1200 mm is ideal for cultivation and growth of jute.. Moreover, requirement of water for ribbon retting is almost half in comparison to conventional whole plant retting under normal condition. In conventional retting, a huge biomass undergoes decomposition in stagnant water, so retting causes environmental pollution. Department of Botany, University of Dacca, Pakistan, You can also search for this author in Retting by hiparol and its commercial application. Nicknamed the golden fiber, jute fiber deteriorates rapidly and because of uneven diameters and comparatively low cellulose concentrations, jute is relatively weak. It is used in the production of fibre from plant materials such as flax and hemp stalks and coir from coconut husks. Jour. The most widely practiced method of retting, water retting, is performed by submerging bundles of stalks in water. Under laboratory conditions the shortest period of retting, three days, was achieved withBacillus polymyxa at a temperature of 40°. Ribbon retting reduces time of normal retting by 4–5 days. Appl. Sci. Cult.9: 451. Most of the defects arising from conventional retting could be overcome by ribbon retting. CAS  Retting in a tank was appreciably hastened by using the same water for successive batches of jute. In ribbon retting, ribbons are stripped out mechanically from the stem of mature jute plants, coiled and allowed to ret under water. London: McGraw-Hill. India earns annually about 1200 crore rupees as a foreign exchange by exporting various jute products. Eventually, the Bangladeshi government set up the Bangladesh Jute Mills Corporation. Biochemical investigations on jute retting. ... hemp, jute, kenaf, etc. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. - 185.32.189.129. Ditches, tanks and pools are also used for retting. 1. Over retting causes degradation of fibre cellulose while under retting causes incomplete removal of gummy materials viz., pectic substances. Salle, A. J. Ind. Retting is a process employing the action of micro-organisms and moisture on plants to dissolve or rot away much of the cellular tissues and pectins surrounding bast-fibre bundles, and so facilitating separation of the fibre from the stem. Jute is one of the important natural fibers after cotton in terms of cultivation and usage. China also has a dominating place in jute cultivation. The traditional method is to ret the jute stems for about 15–18 days and extract the fibre manually after retting. They probably enter stems over the whole surface through stomata, as well as through cut ends and leaf scars, after immersion for retting. Aerobic bacteria involved in the retting of jute. Ribbon retting reduces time of normal retting … The jute fibers are located beneath the bark, primarily concentrated near the woody, central … After the jute stalk has been retted, it is possible to separate the long, silky fibers and comb them into long strings. Bangladesh is the second major producer of jute globally, producing 1,523,315 metric tons of jute in 2011. • Harvested jute bundles are arranged radially up to three layers keeping base of the plants towards periphery of the pond. The optimum temperature is around 34°C. 1 Present address: Department of Botany and Plant Pa-thology, NMichigan State University, East Lansing, Mlichigan. Microbia1: 34–43. Ahmad, M. 1963. 1965. 2. Econ Bot 24, 137–141 (1970). The existing Order under Jute Packaging Materials (JPM) Act, 1987 dated 20 th December, 2019 stipulates that 100% of Foodgrains and 20% sugar are required to be packed compulsorily in jute bags. It also comes from the stem. Retting time must be carefully judged; under-retting makes separation difficult, and over-retting weakens the fibre. The process of retting consists of bundling stems of the jute and immersing these in water that is slowly running. 1965. In our study, a mixed bacterial retting culture, developed in our institute, was inoculated during ribbon retting of jute. After the liberation of Bangladesh from Pakistan in 1971, most of the Pakistani owned jute mills were taken over by the government of Bangladesh. See more. This also reduces environmental pollution to a great extent. A short review of biochemical studies of jute retting. Jute Fiber comes from the outer skin of the jute plant called the ribbon. Debsarma, G. D. 1946. Hemp Retting Is A Process In Which Retting Of Fibre Is Done. Then comes the defoliation stage where the leaves are removed. For natural retting, still the most appropriate process in East Pakistan, large clean ponds are thought to provide the most suitable conditions. Pakist. Jute, a long, soft plant fiber that is spun into coarse, strong threads, is obtained from the plants Corchorus olitorius and Corchorus capsularis. 4. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. In double retting, a gentle process producing excellent fibre, the stalks are removed from the water before retting is completed, dried for several months, then retted again. Basic methods include dew retting and water retting. Prolonged immersion involves the risk of over-retting, probably because of the action of cellulolytic bacteria. Traditional retting of jute takes 15 to 20 days and requires large quantity of water which should be preferably slow-flowing water. PubMed Google Scholar. Jute—an important cash crop of eastern India is traditionally grown for extraction of fibre by a natural microbial process known as retting. This Order is valid upto 30 th September, 2020. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions. Google Scholar. © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The fibers are extracted first by retting. Moreover, 2.5 lakh people are employed in the organized jute industry, and over 25 lakhs people are engaged in jute based ancillary and jute diversified sectors. CAS  Bot.19(4): 384–393. The fibres can be extracted by either biological or chemical retting … Subscription will auto renew annually. Almost 85% of the world's jute cultivation is concentrated in the Ganges Delta.. Eventually, the Bangladeshi government set up the Bangladesh Jute Mills Corporation. Retting Environment • Jute assimilates about 5.8 ton CO2 from the atmosphere in its lifetime (Rahman and Bala, 2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02860592, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in This process removes the non-fibrous material from the stem and the skin of the jute plant. Private communication. Microbiological assessment in this study reveals the total bacterial population of … Rishbeth, J. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Isolation of micro-organisms from jute retting pit, their characterization, and their action on jute stem. Then the fiber is stripped away from the bark by hand (retting) and woven into usable product. Dead fibres: Due to over retting in moist condition, the fibre becomes dull, lose strength and becomes inferior for spinning. Soil pH – 6 -7.5 is ideal soil pH where jute is cultivated.. Part of Springer Nature. Next, the plant is put through what is called retting. In ribbon retting, ribbons are stripped out mechanically from the stem of mature jute plants, coiled and allowed to ret under water. • Conventional retting practice emits a little bit more nutrients, biogas and residues to the air and water compared to ribbon retting. Sci.5: 11–17. Jalaluddin, M. Further observations on the bacteriology of jute retting. very difficult to control causes production of low grade jute fibre. Gently flowing, fairly deep, clear and soft water is ideal for retting. Both over retting and under retting which are very difficult to control causes production of low grade jute fibre. After the liberation of Bangladesh from Pakistan in 1971, most of the Pakistani owned jute mills were taken over by the government of Bangladesh. The water, penetrating to the central stalk portion, swells the inner cells, bursting the outermost layer, thus increasing absorption of both moisture and decay-producing bacteria. In conventional retting, a huge biomass undergoes decomposition in stagnant water, so retting causes environmental pollution. Jalaluddin, M. 1965. [1] It is used in the production of fibre from plant materials such as flax and hemp stalks and coir from coconut husks. Here Is A List Of Some Enzymes That Helps In Retting Of Hemp. Bact.26(2): 117–126. • Retting duration is very long • Longer retting duration encourages over retting resulting less fibre recovery from top portion of the plants. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The mature jute plant is normally harvested by hand. Microbiological studies of some sub-Antarctic soils. Econ.